After delivery of cerium dioxide nanoparticles via the gastrointestinal tract they do not harm but can protect the body against induced oxidative damage.

 

© ag visuell / Fotolia.comIn recent years various experiments on the uptake of cerium dioxide by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have been carried out. The aim of these studies was to investigate possible damaging effects of these particles after the uptake into the body. Most of the studies did not observe any adverse effect after exposure via the GIT. Moreover, very sensitive analyses have been done with radioactively labelled cerium dioxide which can be detected within the body in very small amounts. By using this technique, it could be demonstrated that very small particles with a diameter of around 7 nm could not be translocated through the epithelium of the intestine. More than 90% of the applied dose left the body via the faeces within one day, the remaining amount followed within two further days which results in nearly 100% excretion after three days. After overdosing experiments only a very small amount of 10 billionth could be found in the blood stream [1, 2].

After injection of cerium dioxide nanoparticles directly into the blood stream the particles could be found in the liver and the spleen, whereas no particles have been observed in the brain and the heart. The injected CeO2 has diminished the damaging effect of a liver toxin without inducing an adverse effect by its own. The same result has been shown for application via the food.

Another study investigated the exposure of fishes with different shapes of cerium oxide nanoparticles [3]. The result was very interesting as the spherical nanoparticles did not induce any toxic effect whereas the longest rods could induce inflammatory responses in the animals.


An animal study on rats could demonstrate a negative response of the animals [4]. Relatively high concentrations applied with the food in an acute-toxic study design induced slight DNA-damages but only at the highest dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight and this response was transient as after 48 h the damage decreased. In another comparable repeated-dose study for 28 days [5] the effects have been much stronger but as shown before only at the highest concentrations.

 

Literatur arrow down

  1. He, X. et. al. (2010), Nanotechnology, 21(28): 285103 
  2. Hirst, S.M. et. al. (2013), Environ Toxicol, 28(2): 107-118
  3. Lin, S . et. al. (2014), ACS Nano, 8(5): 4450-4464
  4. Kumari, M. et. al. (2014a), Mutat Res, 775-7767-19
  5. Kumari, M. et. al. (2014b), Mutagenesis, 29(6): 467-479

 

 

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